Relationship between Snow and Temperature over Some Iraqi Meteorological Stations




Temperature, Snow albedo, Snow density, ECMWF, Climate change


Background: Snow forms when tiny ice crystals in clouds stick together to become snowflakes. If enough crystals stick together, they become heavy enough to fall to the ground. Where background includes Precipitation falls as snow when the air temperature is below 2 °C (275.15 K). The falling snow does begin to melt as soon as the temperature rises above freezing, but as the melting process begins, the air around the snowflake is cold. Objective: It is a myth that it needs to be below 0 °C (273.15) K to snow. In Iraq, the heaviest snowfalls tend to occur when the air temperature is between (273.15-275.15) K (0-2) °C. Methods: The data for this study, which includes Temperature (T), Snow Albedo (SA), and Snow Density (SD) as monthly-daily mean, taken from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for fifteen years from 2008 to 2022 for several selected stations over northern Iraq. The method was to take the monthly rates of snow density, snow albedo, and temperature for the stations of Erbil, Sulaymaniyah, Zakho, Dohuk, and Amadiyah, and the type of relationship and strength of the connection between them was also known. Results: The study found an inverse relationship between snow albedo and snow density across the selected stations, indicating that an increase in snow density leads to a decrease in snow albedo. Notably, Duhok City exhibited the strongest relationship between snow albedo and density, with a regression coefficient of 0.9699 compared to other regions. Conclusions: This study highlights the complex relationship between snow albedo and density in northern Iraq. The strong correlation observed in Duhok City suggests the importance of further research to understand the factors influencing snow properties in this region.


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Data Availability Statement

All relevant data is included in the paper.



Original Article

How to Cite

Z. M. . Abbood, “Relationship between Snow and Temperature over Some Iraqi Meteorological Stations”, Al-Mustansiriyah J. Sci., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 43–51, Jun. 2024, doi: 10.23851/mjs.v35i2.1481.

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