Analysis The Intensity of CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Iraq


  • Ahmed S. Hassan Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Sciences, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad.
  • Jasim H. Kadhum Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Sciences, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad.



CO2 intensity, Total CO2 emissions, Iraq.


Carbon dioxide intensity (CI) refers to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion that mainly used for electricity, heat, transport, and other life requirements. The objective of this paper is better to understand CI as an indicator of Global Warming, and compared its behavior with two other variables (total CO2 emissions, and CO2 emissions per capita). The main data sources an available and activity data from Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Three annual variables used in this study; CI, total CO2 emissions, and CO2 per capita for fossil fuel emissions during long time series from (1971 to 2018).

The results of CI shown that the highest value found out at the beginning of the study in 1971 was (7.188 kg/kg oil equivalent), and then decreased till reach to lower value was (1.707 kg/kg oil equivalent) in 1997, after that slowly increased in the last decade near to (3.63 kg/kg oil equivalent). The total CO2 emissions were strongly related to oil prediction. The highest value for total CO2 emissions was (188.1 Mt) in 2018, with Iraqi oil production more than (4.78 million barrel/day). The total CO2 emissions increased by (65. 176%) during the study period.  The total CO2 emissions were inversely proportional to CI.  The level of CO2 emission per capita rate fluctuated around average (3.49 metric tons per capita); the maximum rate was (4.99 metric tons per capita) in 2013.         


J.G.J. Oliver, J.A.H.W. Peters, " Trends in global CO2 and total greenhouse gas emissions. 2020", report. PBL Netherland Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague, the Netherland, 2020, P. 70.

Stephen E. Schwartz," The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change," Environmental and Climate Sciences, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2017, PP. 1-19.


R. J. Andres, T. A. Boden, F.-M. Bréon, P. Ciais, S. Davis, et al., "A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion," Biogeosciences, vol. 9, 2012, PP. 1845-1871.


Yuli Shan, Guan Dabo, Liu, Jianghua, Mi, Zhifu, Liu, Zhu, et al., " Methodology and applications of city level CO2 emission accounts in China," Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 161, 2017, PP. 1215-1225.


Ahmed S. Hassan, Khawla Nihad Zaki, " Decadal Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emission from Different State of Fossil Fuels in Iraq," Indian Journal of Public Health & Development, Vol. 9(12), 2018, PP. 865- 868.


Ahmed S. Hassan, " Relationship between Per Capita CO2 emissions and GDP in Iraq," plant Archive, Vol. 20(2), 2020, 1206- 1209.

Chindo Sulaiman, A. S. Abdul-Rahim, Christopher Amechi Ofozor, " Does wood biomass energy use reduce CO2 emissions in European Union member countries? Evidence from 27 members," Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 253, 2020, PP. 119996 - 120003.


Jamal Alrukabie, Ahmed S. Hassan, Jasim H. Kadhum, "Empirical analysis of CO2 emission using EKC model in Iraq", International journal of advance sciences and technology. Vol. 29. (3s), 2020, PP. 557-564.

Mohammad S Masnadi, Hassan M. El-Houjeiri, Dominik Schunack, Yunpo Li, Jacob G. Englander, et al., " Global carbon intensity of crude oil Production", Science, Vol. 361(6405), 2018, PP. 851-853.

CrossRef | PubMed

G. Maryland, T Oda, Boden TA., "Per capita carbon emissions must fall to 1955 levels," Nature. Vol. 565(7741), 2019, P. 567.

CrossRef |





How to Cite

A. S. Hassan and J. H. Kadhum, “Analysis The Intensity of CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Iraq”, MJS, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 47–50, May 2021.