The Impact of Oil Well Fires on the Free Space Optical Systems
Keywords:Air pollution, oil fire Aerosols, Free space optics and Q- factor.
AbstractAerosol particles in oil fire plumes caused crucial air pollution. The smoke plumes from the blazes initially launched 200-400 m into the air and then continued to rise. The presence of liquid and solid aerosols may cause severe disturbance to the propagation of optical and infrared waves, thus can produce harmful effects on the wireless communication systems. In this paper, we analyze the bit error rate (BER), single to noise ratio (SNR), Q- factor and outage performance of single-input single-output (SISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) FSO systems under attenuation of dense smoke conditions. Obtained results demonstrated that the performance of (SISO) FSO link is degraded from the Fog, Smoke and acid-rain Attenuation due to their chemical nature, their size and their concentration. As well, (MIMO) FSO link is a highly efficient way can be minimal smoke pollution effects
Koren, H., "Illustrated Dictionary and Resource Directory of Environmental and Occupational Health", CRC Press, New York: 701, 2005.
John L Ross, Ronald J. Ferek, and Peter V. Hobbs ," Particle and Gas Emissions from an In Situ Burn of Crude Oil on the Ocean", Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Volume 46, 251-259, 1996.
Hallett, J.; Hudson, J.G.; Rogers, C.F. "Characterization of combustion aerosols for haze and cloud formation," Aerosol Sci. Tech.,10, 1, 70, 1989.
Hudson, J. G., Hallett, J., Rogers and C.F, "Field and laboratory measurements of cloud-forming properties of combustion aerosols", Geophy. Res., 96, D6, 10, 847, 1991.
Chaichan, M. T., Marhoon, O. K., Mohammed, B. A.," The Effect of Spark Ignition Engine Cold Starting Period On The Emitted Emissions", Scientific and Eng. Reports, 1(1): 1-8, 2016.
Cao, J.J., Li, H., Chow, J.C., Watson, J.G., Lee, S.C., Rong, B., Dong, J.G. and Ho, K.F., "Chemical Composition of Indoor and Outdoor Atmospheric Particles at Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Museum, Xi'an, China", Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 11: 70–79, 2011.
Zemankova, K., Brechler, J., "Emissions of Biogenic VOC from Forest Ecosystems in Central Europe: Estimation and Comparison with Anthropogenic Emission Inventory", Environ Pollut, 158:462-469, 2010.
Meng, Y. Y., Wilhelm, M., Rull, R. P., English, P., Ritz, B., "Traffic and Outdoor Air Pollution Levels Near Residences and Poorly Controlled Asthma in Adults ", Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol., 98(5):455-463, 2007.
Technical note, "Environmental issues in areas retaken from isil Mosul, Iraq", rapid scoping mission, UN, 2017.
Arun K. Majumdar, " Advanced Free Space Optics (FSO);A Systems Approach ", Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Volume 186, 2015.
Alexander Maranghides, William Mell, William D. Walton, Erik L. Johnsson, Nelson P. Bryner, " Free Space Optics Communication System Testing in Smoke and Fire Environments", National Communication System, NISTIR7317, 2006.
Muhammad Ijaz, Zabih Ghassemlooy, Jiri Pesek,Ondrej Fiser, Hoa Le Minh, and Edward Bentley," Modeling of Fog and Smoke Attenuation in Free Space Optical Communications Link Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions", Journal Of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 31, No. 11, 2013.
Zahid Saleem, Nasrulah Khan, Waqar Ishaq, Muhammad Altaf, "Free space optical (FSO) link design under diverse weather conditions", Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS Int. Conf. on Microelectronics, Nanoelectronics, Optoelectronics, pp.97-104, Prague, Czech
How to Cite
Articles accepted for publication in Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science (MJS) are protected under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY-NC). Authors of accepted articles are requested to sign a copyright release form prior to their article being published. All authors must agree to the submission, sign copyright release forms, and agree to be included in any correspondence between MJS and the authors before submitting a work to MJS. For personal or educational use, permission is given without charge to print or create digital copies of all or portions of a MJS article. However, copies must not be produced or distributed for monetary gain. It is necessary to respect the copyright of any parts of this work that are not owned by MJS.