Investigation of Virulence Factors in Microbial Organisms that Associated with Public Health Risk Isolates from Different Environmental Regions
Keywords:pathogen, disease transmission, fomites
Infectious diseases caused by infected tools in the environments are threaten to the safety and public health. Transmission sources of these infectious diseases are unknown, but it is thought that non-living materials called fomites, are the major source of acquired infections. Three hundred and one swabs were taken from different sources and cultured on blood agar to study heamolysis ability of isolated bacteria. In this study, MacConkey agar was used to isolate Gram-negative bacteria and Sabouraud agar (SDA) to isolate fungi. The biofilm formation test was done by Congo red plate assay. 41 (13.6%) bacterial isolates were obtained and (18.27%) of fungi were isolated on Sabouraud agar (SDA). Staphylococcus aureus was the more frequent bacterial species that isolated in this study. 29% of samples showed hemolysin activity on blood agar and 32%of the isolates were biofilm- producer. Results revealed that (7.9%) of Gram-negative bacteria harbored the fimH gene, (9%) harbored the icaA were Gram-positive and 6.3 % of fungal samples had HWP1 gene. Furthermore, (9.3%) from the total samples are bacterial samples harbored hla gene belong to Staphylococcus spp. Furthermore, (5.07%) of tested samples possessed hlyA gene were Gram-negative bacteria. We found in our study that infectious organisms can be transmitted from one individual to another by fomites responsible for acquired infection.
O.F.Abiose, Bacterial Contamination of Selected Public Toilet Door Handles within Adekunle Ajasin University Campus, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 2019. 43(1): p. 76-86.
A.Nworie, and A. AyeniJ. Bacterial contamination of door handles/knobs in selected public conveniences in Abuja metropolis, Nigeria: a public health threat. Continental Journal of Medical Research, 2012. 6(1): p. 7-11.
O.Alonge, Auwal,B. and Aboh M. , Bacterial contamination of toilet door handles on Baze University campus Abuja Nigeria. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology, 2019. 20(1): p. 35-41.
F.I Irshaid, J.H. Jacob, and A.S. Khwaldh, Contamination of the handles and bases of shopping carts by pathogenic and multi-drug resistant bacteria. European Scientific Journal, 2014. 10(27).
F.Ngonda, Assessment of bacterial contamination of toilets and bathroom doors handle/knobs at Daeyang Luke hospital. Pharmaceutical and Biological Evaluations, 2017. 4(4): p. 193-197.
A.Raad, ,A.J.E. AL-Harmoosh, H. A. Naji, W.Ahmed and M. Mohammad, Potential Pathogenic Bacterial Contaminants of Doors Handles and Computers Keyboards in the Faculty Environment. J Pure Appl Microbiol, 2019.
M.Al-Harbi, A. Anderson, and A. Elmi, Evaluation of microbial contamination in frequently used fomites in Kuwait. Biodiversity International Journal, 2017. 1(3): p. 80-86.
Al-Kadmy, I.M., , S.A Ibrahim 2, N. Al-Saryi , S. Naji Aziz, A. Besinis 1, H. F Hetta. Prevalence of genes involved in colistin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: first report from Iraq. Microbial Drug Resistance, 2020. 26(6): p. 616-622.
S.W.Mohammed, and H.M. Radif, Detection of icaA Gene Expression in ClinicalBiofilm-Producing Staphylococcus aureus Isolates. Iraqi Journal of Science, 2020: p. 3154-3163.
Nikmanesh, B., et al., Candida africana and Candida dubliniensis as causes of pediatric candiduria: A study using HWP1 gene size polymorphism. AIMS microbiology, 2020. 6(3): p. 272.
C. Lalitha,. Contamination of refrigerator is a threat for infections. International Journal of Advance Research, Ideas and Innovations in Technology,2019. 5, P.1514-1517.
A. Gerhardts, T.R Hammer, C. Balluff, H. Mucha and D.A. Hoefer. model of the transmission of micro‐organisms in a public setting and its correlation to pathogen infection risks. Journal of applied microbiology, 2012. 112(3): p. 614-621.
L. Maori, V.O. Agbor, and W.A. Ahmed, The prevalence of bacterial organisms on toilet door handles in Secondary Schools in Bokkos LGA, Jos, Plateau Sate, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological sciences, 2013. 8(4): p. 85-91.
S.F. Bashir, H, Muhammad,
N.M. Sani, and A.H. Kawo. Isolation and identification of bacterial contaminants from door handles of public toilets in federal university Dutse, Jigawa State-Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 2016. 11(5): p. 53-57.
K. Hara, and D. Zhang, Bacterial abundance and viability in long-range transported dust. Atmospheric Environment, 2012. 47: p. 20-25.
C.P. Gerba, and S. Maxwell, Bacterial contamination of shopping carts and approaches to control. Food protection trends, 2012. 32(12): p. 747-749.
I.B. Otu-Bassey, I.S. Ewaoche1, B. F. Okon and U.A. Ibor. Microbial contamination of house hold refrigerators in Calabar Metropolis-Nigeria. American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease, 2017. 5(1): p. 1-7.
D. Tielker, S. Hacker, R.Loris, M. Strathmann, J. Wingender, S. Wilhelm, F. Rosenau, K. Jaeger. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin LecB is located in the outer membrane and is involved in biofilm formation. Microbiology, 2005. 151(5): p. 1313-1323.
S. A Abid, A.A Taha, R. A Ismail, M. H Mohsin, Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of cerium oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in liquid. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2020. 27: p. 30479-30489.
K. Otto, J. Norbeck, T. Larsson, K.A. Karlsson and M. Hermansson.Adhesion of type 1-fimbriated Escherichia coli to abiotic surfaces leads to altered composition of outer membrane proteins. Journal of bacteriology, 2001. 183(8): p. 2445-2453.
G.Lerebour, S. Cupferman, and M. Bellon‐Fontaine, Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis to the Episkin® reconstructed epidermis model and to an inert 304 stainless steel substrate. Journal of applied microbiology, 2004. 97(1): p. 7-16.
H. Zhang, Y. Zheng, H. Gao, P. Xu, M. Wang, A. Li, M. Miao, X. Xie, Y.Deng, H. Zhou and H. Du. Identification and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains with an incomplete hemolytic phenotype. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 2016. 6: p. 146.
S. M. Kareem, I. M. S. Al-kadmy, S. S Kazaal, A. N Mohammed Ali, S. N. Aziz, R. R Makharita, A. M Algammal, S. Al-Rejaie, T. Behl, G. Batiha, M. A. El-Mokhtar and H. F Hetta. Detection of gyra and parc mutations and prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in klebsiella pneumoniae. Infection and Drug Resistance, 2021. 14: p. 555.
M. Abastabar, S. Hosseinpoor, M.T. Hedayati, T. Shokohi, R. Valadan, H. Mirhendi, R. Mohammadi, S.R. Aghili, N. Rahimi, N. Aslani, I. Haghani, and S. Gholami. Hyphal wall protein 1 gene: A potential marker for the identification of different Candida species and phylogenetic analysis. Current medical mycology, 2016. 2(4): p. 1.
T.AliVehmas,M.Vikerpuur, S. Pyörälä and F. Atroshi. Characterization of hemolytic activity of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitic milk. Microbiological research, 2001. 155(4): p. 339-344.
S.S. Khazaal, I.M.S. Al-Kadmy and S.N. Aziz, Mechanism of pathogenesis in multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from intensive care unit. Gene Reports, 2020. 18: p. 100557.
H. Radhouani, P. Poeta, A. Gonçalves, R. Pacheco, R. Sargo and G. Igrejas . Wild birds as biological indicators of environmental pollution: antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from common buzzards (Buteo buteo). Journal of medical microbiology, 2012. 61(6): p. 837-843.
R. Capita, J. Cordero, D. Molina-González, G. Igrejas, P. Poeta and C. Alonso-Calleja Phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from pigeon meat. Antibiotics, 2019. 8(4): p. 259.
H. Motamedi, B. Asghari, H. Tahmasebi, and M. R. Arabestani. Identification of hemolysine genes and their association with antimicrobial resistance pattern among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in West of Iran. Advanced biomedical research, 2018. 7.
III. F. Alonzo Iand V. J. Torres, The bicomponent pore-forming leucocidins of Staphylococcus aureus. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 2014. 78(2): p. 199-230.
L.F. Corredor Arias, J.S. Luligo Espinal, J. I. Moncayo Ortiz, J.J. Santacruz Ibarra, and A. Álvarez Aldana. Relationship between super antigenicity, antimicrobial resistance and origin of Staphylococcus aureus isolated. Colombia Médica, 2016. 47(1): p. 15-20.
D. Mukherjee, A. Pal, D. Chakravarty, P. Chakrabarti. Identification of the target DNA sequence and characterization of DNA binding features of HlyU, and suggestion of a redox switch for hlyA expression in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae from in silico studies. Nucleic acids research, 2015. 43(3): p. 1407-1417.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Articles accepted for publication in Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science (MJS) are protected under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Authors of accepted articles are requested to sign a copyright release form prior to their article being published. All authors must agree to the submission, sign copyright release forms, and agree to be included in any correspondence between MJS and the authors before submitting a work to MJS. For personal or educational use, permission is given without charge to print or create digital copies of all or portions of a MJS article. However, copies must not be produced or distributed for monetary gain. It is necessary to respect the copyright of any parts of this work that are not owned by MJS.