Biofilm and Hemolysis Profile Index in Bacteria Isolated from Pre-Cesarean Surgery and Post Cesarean Infections


  • Dalia Awni Edwar Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, 10052 Baghdad, IRAQ.
  • Eman N. Naji Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, 10052 Baghdad, IRAQ.
  • Abbas Maleki Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Iran.



postoperative infection, bacterial hemolysis, biofilm formation, skin microbiota


Swabs were taken from 340 different sites of skin divided into four groups including; group 1/160 swabs, group 2/50 swabs, group 3/100 swabs, group 4/30 swabs, taken from 100 female patients’ skin before surgery at the site of cesarean incision from several positions before and after sterilization with 10% povidone-iodine and with 10% povidone-iodine mixed with 70% ethanol, and from infected surgical sites. The bacterial isolates were identified by phenotypic examination, biochemical tests, as well as VITEK-2 assay. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the prevalent bacteria isolated from skin sample sources in group 1,2, and 3 with a total rate 81% followed by Staphylococcus aureus which was dominant in group 4 that included surgical site infection swabs. In addition, other bacteria species were isolated from different skin sites such as Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Kocuria kristinae, Enterobacter cloacae, Aerococcus viridans, Pantoea, and Burkholderia cepacian. Most isolates had hemolytic activity and all of them showed Beta hemolysis except Aerococcus viridans that expressed alpha hemolysis. Most isolates from numerous bacterial groups showed moderate biofilm production.


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Submission Dates

Received: 11/03/2023

Revised: 29/04/2023

Accepted: 22/05/2023

How to Cite

D. A. . Edwar, E. N. Naji, and A. . Maleki, “ Biofilm and Hemolysis Profile Index in Bacteria Isolated from Pre-Cesarean Surgery and Post Cesarean Infections”, Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 8–18, Dec. 2023.



Biological Science