Seasonal Optimum Tilt Angle of Solar Panels for 100 Cities in the World


  • Aqeel R. Salih Department of Physics, College of Education for Pure Science (Ibn Al-Haitham), University of Baghdad, Baghdad, IRAQ.



Optimum tilt angle, , Renewable energy, , Solar Panel Angle Calculator


Solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy source. This energy can be converted directly into electricity using solar panels. The fixed tilt solar panels are the most practical and the most widely installed throughout the world. Optimum tilt angle calculation has the advantage that it does not use expensive solar trackers. This research calculates the seasonal optimum tilt angle of solar panels for 17 cities in Iraq and 83 cities in 83 countries distributed around the world. Solar Panel Angle Calculator program was used in calculating the optimum tilt angles from vertical. The optimum tilt angle varies between 6° and 112° throughout the year. This angle for winter, spring/ autumn and summer seasons are found to be between 6° to 66°, 30° to 89° and 54° to 112°, respectively. All angles calculated from the calculator program are validated by comparing it with those obtained from equations. An excellent agreement was established. Cities which have approximately the same absolute values of the latitudes are have the same optimum tilt angles. Based on the results, adjusting angles four times a year is recommended. This work can serve as a guidance for installing solar panels.


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Original Article

How to Cite

A. R. . Salih, “Seasonal Optimum Tilt Angle of Solar Panels for 100 Cities in the World”, Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 104–110, Mar. 2023, doi: 10.23851/mjs.v34i1.1250.

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