Study of Phenotypic and Genotypic Factors of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Local Isolates
Keywords:Staphylococcus aureus, mecA, Biofilm formation, Virulence factors.
The isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from patients with various infections in hospitals, the isolates were identified and accurately diagnosed by phenotypic examination and biochemical tests, as well Vitek-2, and then genetic detection and diagnosis of many of the pathogenic factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and testing for association by antibiotic resistance and production of some toxins by Staphylococcus aureus. After performing analysis of statistical, it was set up that the correlation coefficient of the PCR technique using virulence genes, sensitivity test to antibiotics and other virulence factors were significant at p < 0.05, but was insignificant with the biofilm production.
M. Ghahremani, NH. Jazani and Y. Sharifi, "Emergence of vancomycin-intermediate and resistant Staphylococcus aureus among methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolated from clinical specimens in the northwest of Iran", J Glob Antimicrob Resist.; 14:4-9, 2018.
S.X. Li, P.P.Wang, J.L. Zhao, L.H. Zhou, , P.F. Zhang, C.Y. Fu, J. Meng, and X.Wang,"Characterization of toxin genes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus from retail raw chicken meat," J. Food Prot, 2018.
C. Jenul, and A.R. Horswill, "Regulation of Staphylococcus aureus virulence," Microbiol, 2018.
H. K. Ono, Y. Sato, K. Narita, I. Naito, S. Hirose, J. Hisatsune, K. Asano, D.L. Hu, K. Omoe, M. Sugai, and A. Nakane, "Identification and characterization of a novel staphylococcal emetic toxin", Appl. Environ. Microbiol.81:7034-7040, 2015.
C. Jenul, and A. R. Horswill, "Regulation of Staphylococcus aureus virulence, "Microbiol.GPP3-0031, 2018.
E.L. Fisher, M. Otto and G. Y. C. Cheung, "Basis of virulence in enterotoxin-mediated staphylococcal food poisoning", Microbiol.9:436, 2018.
M. Otto, "Staphylococcal biofilms," Microbiol.GPP3-0023, 2018.
H. Sharma, C.E. Turner, M.K. Siggins, M. El-Bahrawy, B. Pichon, A. Kearns and S. Sriskandan, "Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 evaluation and antibiotic impact in a transgenic model of staphylococcal soft tissue infection", mSphere. 4:e00665-19, 2019.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), "Performance standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing,"Twenty seventh informational supplement. M100-S21.3 (1), 2020.
SA Rice, S. Wuertz and S. Kjelleberg, "Next-generation studies of microbial biofilm communities,"Microb Biotechnol. 9:677-80, 2016.
G. F Brooks, K. C Carroll, J. S. Butel, and S. A. Melnick, "Medical Microbiology," 24th.ed. the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York: 224-232, 2007.
R. Page and W. Peti, "Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacterial growth arrest and persistence", Nat. Chem. Biol. 12 208-14, 2016.
A. Omar, J. B. Wright, G. Schultz, R. Burrell, and P. Nadworny, "Microbial Biofilms and Chronic Wounds", Microorganisms.5 pii:E9, 2017.
W. Abdulkareem, N.Hussein, A. Mohammed, S. Arif, and I. Naqid, "Risk Factors Association for MRSA Nasal Colonization in Preoperative Patients in Azadi Teaching Hospital-Duhok, Kurdistan Region", Iraq. Science Journal of University of Zakho, 8(3), 88-9, 2020.
V. Mascaro, M. S. Capano, T. Iona, C. G. A. Nobile, A. Ammendoila and M. Pavia, "Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus carriage and pattern of antibiotic resistance, including methicillin resistance, among contact sport athletes in Italy", Infect Drug Resist, 12, 1161-1170, 2019.
Lakhundi, S., and K. Zhang, "Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: molecular characterization, evolution, and epidemiology", Clinical microbiology reviews, 31(4), 2018.
S. Ansari, R. Gautam, S. Shrestha, S. R. Ansari, S. N. Subedi and M. R. Chhetri, "Risk factors assessment for nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus and its methicillin resistant strains among pre-clinical medical students of Nepal", BMC research notes, 9(1), 214, 2016.
F. Sultan and S. Al Meani, "Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus toxins genes in clinical and food isolates in Iraq", Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 11(2); 636-642, 2019.
R. Parastan, M. Kargar, K. Solhjoo, and F. Kafilzadeh, "A synergistic association between adhesion-related genes and multidrug resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from different patients and healthy individuals", Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, 22, 379-385, 2020.
M. H. Al-Khafaji and M. T. Flayyih, "Relationship between methicillin resistance and the presence of femA and mecA genes in coagulase positive and negative staphylococci isolated from milk and cheese", World J Exp Biosci, 3, 50-56, 2015.
A. M. Alalem Antibiotic, "Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection Studies in Hospitals," Doctoral Thesis. Middle East Technical University.p.157, 2008.
N. E. Onwubiko and N. M. Sadiq, "Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical isolates in a tertiary health institution in Kano," Northwestern Nigeria. J. of Pan Afri. Med.40(7): 1937- 8688, 2011.
A. Vainio, "Molecular Methods for the Epidemiological Analysis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Streptococcus pneumoniae", Juvenes Print-Tampere University Print Tampere, Finland. ISBN 978-952-245-555-0, 2012.
A. Antony, "Study of Biofilm forming capacity of pathogens involved in Chronic Rhinosinusitis", Master Thesis. Auckland University of Technology. Auckland, 2011.
T. Iwase, Y. Uehara, S. Hitomi, T. Akiko, S. Hiromi, T. Koji, T. Agata and M. Yoshimitsu, "Staphylococcus epidermidis Esp inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and nasal colonization", Nature 465 (7296): 346-9, 2010.
B. A. Lipsky, Y. P. Tabak, R. S. Johannes, L. Vo, L. Hyde and JA. Weigelt, "Skin and soft tissue infections in hospitalized patients with diabetes: culture isolates and risk factors associated. with mortality, length of stay and cost", US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health53(5):914-23, 2010.
J. L. Raygada, and D.P. Levine,"Managing CA-MRSA Infections: Current and Emerging Options", Infections in Medicine 26 (2), 2009.
A. Jain, A. Varma, Mangalanandan, P.H Kumar, and A. Bal, "Surgical outcome of necrotizing fasciitis in diabetic lower limbs", Journal of Diabetic Foot Complications 1 (4): 80-84, 2009.
A. Schwartz, Robert, "Dermatologic Manifestations of Necrotizing Fasciitis," Medscape.com. June 9, 2011.
J. G. Hendriks, E. van Horn, J R.; van der, H. C. Mei and H. J Busscher, "Backgrounds of antibiotic-loaded bone cement and prosthesis-related infection", Biomaterials.25 (3): 545-556, 2004.
L. H. Chen, Z. H. Xiong, L. L. Sun, J. Yang and Q. Jin, "toward the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of bacterial virulence factors", Nucleic. Acids Res. 40(Database issue): D641-D645, 2012.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Articles accepted for publication in Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science (MJS) are protected under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Authors of accepted articles are requested to sign a copyright release form prior to their article being published. All authors must agree to the submission, sign copyright release forms, and agree to be included in any correspondence between MJS and the authors before submitting a work to MJS. For personal or educational use, permission is given without charge to print or create digital copies of all or portions of a MJS article. However, copies must not be produced or distributed for monetary gain. It is necessary to respect the copyright of any parts of this work that are not owned by MJS.