The effect of non-thermal plasma Jet on bacterial biofilms and plasmid DNA


  • Saba Mawlood Sulaiman Department Sciences, Basic Education College, University of Mosul, Mosul, IRAQ.
  • Safa Aldeen Abdulla Sulyman Department Sciences, Basic Education College, University of Mosul, Mosul, IRAQ.



Plasma DBD, Non-thermal plasma, Bacteria biofilm inhibition, Plasmid DNA.


The effect of non-thermal discharge plasma (DBD) on the inhibition of both gram-positive and gram-negative biofilms bacteria was examined at different plasma exposure times and gas flow. This effect induces damage to aqueous plasmid DNA. It reveals inactivation in bacterial biofilms for both types of bacteria with an increase in time of direct exposure to plasma and an increase in gas flow. The presence of positive bacteria outweighs the negative bacteria in susceptibility to inhibition. The resulting fractions of the DNA indicate whole DNA double-strand breaks and were determined using agarose gel electrophoresis. The damage level induced in the plasmid DNA is also enhanced with increased plasma irradiation time.


Download data is not yet available.


S. Deng, R. Ruan, C. K. Mok, G. Huang, X. Lin and P. Chen, "Inactivation of Escherichia coli on almonds using non thermal plasma," J Food Sci, vol. 72, no. 2, p. 62-66, 2007.


S. G. Joshi, M. Cooper, A. Yost, M. Paff, U. K. Ercan, G. Fridman, G. Friedman, A. Fridman,"Nonthermal dielectric-barrier discharge plasma-induced inactivation involves oxidative DNA damage and membrane lipid peroxidation in Escherichia coli," Antimicrob Agents Chemother, vol. 55, no. 3, p. 1053-1062, 2011.

PMid:21199923 PMCid:PMC3067084

D. Ziuzina, S. Patil, P. J. Cullen, K. M. Keener and P. Bourke, "Atmospheric cold plasma inactivation of Escherichia coli in liquid media inside a sealed package," J Appl Microbiol, vol. 114, no. 3, p. 778-787,2013


N. N. Misra, B. K. Tiwari, K. S Raghavarao and P.J. Cullen, "Nonthermal plasma inactivation of food-borne pathogens," Food Eng Rev, vol. 3, p. 159-170, 2011.

[5] J. Ehlbeck, U. Schnabel, M. Polak, J. Winter, T. Woedtke, R .Brandenburg, T. Hagen and K. Weltmann, "Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma sources for microbial decontamination," J. phys. D: Appl. Phys., vol. 44, no. 1, 2010.

K. Lee, K. Paek, W. Ju and Y. Lee, "Sterilization of bacteria, yeast, and bacterial endospores by atmospheric pressure cold plasma using helium and oxygen," J Microbiol, vol. 44, no. 3, p. 269-275, 2006.

S. A. Ermolaeva, A. F. Varfolomeev, M. Y. Chernukha, D. S. Yurov, Vasiliev, M. M. Kaminskaya, M. M. Moisenovich, J. M. Romanova, "Bactericidal effects of non-thermal argon plasma in vitro, in biofilms and in the animal model of infected wounds,". J Med Microbiol, vol. 60, no. 1, p. 75-83, 2011.


S. Yick, A. Prochnow, L. Levchenko, J. Fang, M. Bull, M. Bradbury, A. Murphy and K. Ostrikov, "The effects of plasma treatment on bacterial biofilm formation on vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays," RSC Advances, vol. 5, p. 5142-5148, 2015.

M. M. Kayes, F. J. Critzer, K. Kelly-Wintenberg, J. R. Roth, T. C. Montie and D. A Golden, "Inactivation of foodborne pathogens using a one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma," Foodborne Pathog Dis, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 50-59, 2007.


R. A. Venicia , M. Orrico, E. Houston, S. M. Yin and Y. Y. Naumova,, "Lethal activity of Nonthermal plasma sterilization against microorganisms," Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, vol. 29, no. 5, p. 430-436, 2008.


H. Ghomi, N. Safa, K. Ramezani, and M. Karimi, "Bacterial inactivation by DBD plasma in atmospheric pressure," 19th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (ISPC19), Bochum, vol. 81, 2009.

X. H. Liu, F. Hong, Y. Guo, J. Zhang and J.J. Shi, "Sterilization of Staphylococcus aureus by an atmospheric non-thermal plasma jet," Plasma Sci Technol., Vol. 15, no. 5, p. 439, 2013.

D. Dobrynin, G. Fridman, G. Friedman and A. Fridman, "Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue," New J Phys, Vol.11, no. 11, 2009.

D. Dobrynin, G. Friedman, A. Fridman and A. Starikovskiy, "Inactivation of bacteria using DC corona discharge: Role of ions and humidity," New J Phys, vol. 13, no.10, 2011a.

PMid:22403515 PMCid:PMC3295596

A. Shekhter, A. Vladimir, V. Serezhenkov, T. Rudenko, A. Pekshev, F.Vanin, "Beneficial effect of gaseous nitric oxide on the healing of skin wounds," Nitric Oxide, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 210-219, 2005


S. Kuhn, N. Bibinov, R. Gesche and Awakowicz, "Non-Thermal atmospheric pressure HF plasma sourse, generation of nitric oxide and ozone for bio-medical applications," IOP PUBLISHING, Plasa Sources Sci. Technol., vol. 19, no. 1, 2010.

S. Stepanovic, D. Vukovic, I. Dakic, B. Savic and M. Svabic Vlahovic, "A modified microtiter-plate test for quantification of Staphylococcal biofilm formation," J. Microbiological Methods, vol. 40, no. 2, p. 175-179, 2000

A. P. Fonseca, C. Extremina, A. F. Fonseca and J. C. Sousa, "Effect of subinhibitory concentration of piperacillin/ tazobactam on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Journal of Medical Microbiology," vol. 53, no. 9, p. 903-910, 2004


G. O. Hayawi, "Phenotypic and genetic investigation of biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different infections," PhD thesis, College of Science, Mosul, 152p , 2018.

S. K. Al-Hayali, , Genetic and molecular analysis of the yield and its components for varieties of coarse wheat, PhD thesis, College of Science, University of Mosul, (2013).

A. D. Patange, J. C. Simpson, J. F. Curtin, P. J. Burgess & K. T. Brijesh, "Inactivation efficacy of atmospheric air plasma and airborne acoustic ultrasound against bacterial biofilms," Scientific Reports, vol. 11, p. 2346, 2011.

PMid:33504900 PMCid:PMC7840748

P. Bourke, D. Ziuzina, L. Han, P.J. Cullen, and B.F., Gilmore, "Microbiological interactions with cold plasma, Applied Microbiology," vol. 123, no. 2, p. 308-324, 2017


A. G. O'Donnell, M. Seasman, A. Macrae, I. Waite & J. T. Davies, "Plants and fertilisers as drivers of change in microbial community structure and function in soils," Plant and Soil, vol. 232, p. 135-145, 2001.

T. T. Gupta and H. Ayan, "Application of Non-Thermal Plasma on Biofilm: A Review," Appl. Sci., vol. 9, no. 17, p. 3548, 2019.

M. Laroussi, "Low Temperature Plasma-Based Sterilization: Overview and State-of-the-Art," Plasma Process. Polym., vol. 2, no. 2, p. 391-400, 2005.

A. AL-rawaf, F. Khaddam, M. Khalaf, K. Oudah, "Studying the non-thermal plasma jet characteristics and application on bacterial decontamination," Theoretical and Applied Physics," vol. 12, no. 1, p. 45-51, 2018.

X. Lu, Y. Tao , Y. G. Cao, Z. Sun, Q. Xiong, Z. Tang, Z. Xiong, J. Hu, Z. Jiang, and Y. Pan, "The roles of the various plasma agents in the inactivation of bacteria," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 104, no. 5, 2008.

. X. Liao, D. Liu, Q. Xiang, J. Ahn, S. Chen, X. Ye, T. Ding, "Inactivation mechanisms of non-thermal plasma on microbes: A review," Food Control, vol. 75, no.1, 83-91, 2017

G. Gebreyohannes, A. Nyerere, C. Bii, D. B. Sbhatu, "Challenges of intervention, treatment, and antibiotic resistance of biofilm-forming microorganisms," Heliyon, Vol. 5, no. 8, 2019.

PMid:31463386 PMCid:PMC6709409

X. Yan, F. Zou, X. P. Lu, G. He, M. J. Shi, Q. Xiong, X. Gao, Z. Xiong, Y. Li, F. Y. Ma, M. Yu, C. D. Wang, Y. Wang, and G. Yang, "Effect of the atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasmas on the conformational changes of plasmid DNA," APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 95, no. 8, 2009.

S. Ptasinska, B. Bahnev, A. Stypczynska, M. Bowden, N. J. Mason and N. St. J. Braithwaite, "DNA strand scission induced by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet," Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 12, no. 28, p. 7779-7781, 2010.


M. Y. Alkawareek, H. Alshraiedeh, S. Higginbotham, P. B. Flynn, Q. T. Algwari, S. P. Gorman, W. G. Graham, and B. F. "Gilmorea, Plasmid DNA Damage Following Exposure to Atmospheric Pressure Nonthermal Plasma," Kinetics and Influence of Oxygen Admixture, Plasma Medicine, vol. 4, no. 9, p. 211-219, 2014.

K. P. Arjunan, V. K. Sharma and S. Ptasinska, "Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas on Isolated and Cellular DNA-A Review," International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 16, no. 2, p. 2971-3016, 2015.

PMid:25642755 PMCid:PMC4346876


Key Dates



How to Cite

S. M. Sulaiman and S. A. A. Sulyman, “The effect of non-thermal plasma Jet on bacterial biofilms and plasmid DNA”, Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 19–26, Dec. 2021, doi: 10.23851/mjs.v32i5.1118.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 133

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.