The Influence of Age, Gender and Weight on Sex Hormone Levels and Histological Development of Reproductive Organs in Arabi Sheep


  • Aseel Jameel Jumaa Animal Production Department, College of Agriculture, University of Basra, Basra, IRAQ.
  • Waleed Yosief Kassim Animal Production Department, College of Agriculture, University of Basra, Basra, IRAQ.



Arabi sheep, sexual hormones, reproductive organs, age, weight


This study was conducted in the College of Agriculture - University of Basra from 1/9/2020 to 15/1/2021 by collecting 120 blood samples from males and females of the Arabi sheep breed, as well as taking samples from reproductive organs (testes and ovaries) to evaluate the effect of age, weight and sex of animals on sexual hormone levels . Samples were divided into three age groups (5-8 months, 9-12 months and 1-1.5 years) and three body weight groups (15-25, 26-36, 37-47) kg. The results showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in the concentration of gonadotropin hormones (FSH, LH) and steroidal hormones (estrogen, progesterone and testosterone) in animals older than 9 months. The concentration of FSH and LH hormones were higher females compared to males. All levels of sex hormones significantly (P<0.05) increased when the body weight increased to more than 26 kg in both sexes. Reproductive organs in both sexes (testes and ovaries) developed when the animal age and weight increased.


M. F. Abdelnour, "The most important sheep breeds in the Arab world and their types, physiological and reproductive characteristics. Dar Al-Hikmafor. printing, publishing and distribution, Second edition, Cairo, 2011, pp. 481.

E. I. Khalifa, M. E. Ahmed, et al., " Age at puberty and fertility of Rahmani sheep fed on biological inoculated corn silage. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 2013, 58(2) pp. 163-172.


M. P. Petrovic, V. Caro Petrovic, et al., "Some imoertant factors affecting fertility in sheep. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 2012, 28 (3) pp. 517-528.


P. James, S. M. Hanrahan, et al., "Mutations in the Genes Both Increased Ovulation Rate and Sterility in Cambridge and Belclare Sheep, "Ovis Aries. Biol. Reprod. Epub. Apr., 2004, 70(4) pp. 900-909.

CrossRef | PubMed

K. S. Chukwuka, I. O. Okonko, and Adekunle, A. A., Microbial ecology of organisms causing pawpaw,, "Carica papaya L. . fruit decay in Oyo State, Nigeria. American-Eurasian Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 2010, 2(1): pp. 43-50.

I. F. Marai; E. L. Darawany; et al., "Serum blood components during pre-oestrus, Oestrus and pregnancy phases in Egyptian Suffolk ewes as affected heat stress, under the conditions of Egypt. Animal Production Research, Egypt. J. Sheep, Goats and Desert Anim. Sci., 2006, 1: pp. 47-62.

S. L. Garg, S. Sharama, et al., "Age associated variations in peripheral concentration of certain hormones of female buffalo calves from birth to puberty. Indian journal of animal sciences, 2002, 72(7): pp. 579-581.‏

M. M. Al-Rustamwi, "Effect of the two sexes on early puberty in Arabogamous female lambs. Master Thesis, College of Agriculture, University of Basra. 2018.

L. G. Luna, "Manual of histological staining method of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Paperback ,3ed; Mc Grow -Hi 11 Book Co Inc. 1968, pp. 255 New York.

SPSS, "Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Quantitative Data Analysis with IBM SPSS version 26: A Guide for Social Scientists. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-57918-6. , 2019.

J. M. Manning, C.G. Herbosa, et al., "Patterns of GnRH secretion in the pitutary portal circulation of the growth-relarded female sheep during hypogonadotropsim. Annual Meeting at Society of Neuroscience. Anabein G. H., P191. 1992.

S.E. Recabarren, A. Lobos, et al., "Secretory patterns of leptin and luteinizing hormone in food-restricted young female sheep. Biol. Res., 2004, 37: pp. 371-384.

CrossRef | PubMed

W. Y. Kassim, and M. F. AL-Hellou, "Effect of geographic location and age on levels of some biochemical parameters of ewes in Southern of Iraq. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 2018, 6(11) pp. 21-29.


P. M. Michael, J. P. Hanrahan, et al., "Investigation of Prolific Sheep from UK and Ireland for Evidence on Origin of the Mutations in BMP15 (FecXG, FecXB) and GDF9 (FecGH) in Belclare and Cambridge Sheep. PLOS ONE, 2013, 8(1): pp. 1-6.

CrossRef | PubMed

S. E. Recabarren, T. Petermann, et al., "Response to the gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist leuprolide in immature female sheep androgenized in utero. Biol. Res., 2005, 38: pp. 235-244.

CrossRef | PubMed

K. Sakurap, S. Ohkura, et al., "Body growth and plasma concentrations of metabolites and metabolic hormones during the pubertal period in female Shiba goats. J. Reprod. Develop., 2004, 50: pp. 197-205.

CrossRef | PubMed

P. Astuti, D. T. Widayati, et al., "Cortisol and Estradiol Profile in Cross-bred Ettawa Does: The Effects of Body Condition Scoring (BCS). Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology, 2008, 13(1): pp. 1038-1043.

Z. Abdel-Hafeez, T. Knig, et al., "Effects of season, environmental factors on stress responses , hormonal and semen values of bulls . Australian Vet. J., 2001,79 (5): pp. 279-284.

CrossRef | PubMed

C. Vinoles, M. Forsberg, et al., "Short-term nutritional supplementation of ewes in low body condition affects follicle development due to an increase in glucose and metabolic hormones. Reproduction, 2005, 129(3): pp. 299-309.‏

CrossRef | PubMed

Z. B. Kiyma, E. A. Alexander, et al., Effects of feed restriction on reproductive and metabolic hormones in ewes. J. Anim. Sci., 2004, 82: pp. 2548-2557.

CrossRef | PubMed

S. L. Al-Hayali, "The effect of using different levels of diet protein on sexual maturity for weaning Awassi sheep. Master Thesis, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul. 2005.

W. Y. kassim, "Effect of different levels of barley on the concentration of sexual and metabolic hormones and some hematological and biochemical parameters of female Arabized lambs. PhD thesis, College of Agriculture, University of Basra. 2012.

A. A. Habeeb, A. E. Gad, and M. A. Atta, "Changes in body weightgain and blood hormonal levels in relation to change in age of Egyptian male buffalo calves from birthing to puberty. Adv. Appl. Physiol, 2016, 1: pp. 43-48.‏

N. D. Tamara, "Effect of adding Cinnamomumcamphora on the testosterone hormone and reproductive traits of the Awassi rams. Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences, 2014, 5(2): pp. 25-35.

I. S. Al-Tarabany, I. J. Khalid, and I. Sami, "The effect of dominance and infertility of some species of Egyptian rams reproductive performance. Egyptian J. of Anim. Sci., 2015, 12(6) : pp. 1 -14.

S. A. Salhab, M. Zarkawi, et al., "Development of testicular dimensions and size, and their relationship to age, body weight and parental size in growing Awassi ram lambs. Small Rumin Res., 2001, 40: pp. 187-191.

CrossRef | PubMed

A. G. Byskov, and P. E. Hoyer, "Embryology of mammalian gonads and ducts. The physiology of Reproduction. relationship to ovulation. Anat. Rec., 1994, 111: pp. 273-297.

A. Rajput, B.J. Davis, M. L. Rajput, E. A. Aul, and G. R. Eichhorn, A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of iron in restless legs syndrome. European neurology,.2000. 43(2): 70-75.‏

CrossRef | PubMed

H. Al-Ajmi, "Which Microstructural Features of Bilingual Dictionaries Affect Users' Look‐Up Performance?. International Journal of Lexicography, 2002, 15(2): pp. 119-131.





How to Cite

A. J. . Jumaa and W. Y. . Kassim, “The Influence of Age, Gender and Weight on Sex Hormone Levels and Histological Development of Reproductive Organs in Arabi Sheep”, Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 27–32, Feb. 2023.