Stopping power ,Z_1^3- Parameter, Bloch and shell corrections in Bethe formula for protons and Helium ions in DNA and liquid water.

ishraq ahmed shakir


The Barkas effect came because of target electrons due to responding to the approaching particle and slightly changing the orbits before occur from interaction of energy loss (denominate target polarization). At high energies (above 20 10   insignificant because the ion moving too fast to cause initial motion the target electrons where at low energies  the Barkas effect is investigated.[1].

In present work stopping power, Barkas effects, Bloch and shell corrections have been investigated for the interaction of protons and Helium ions in DNA and liquid water. Braggs rule has been used on each element in DNA and liquid water to determine the parameters correction in Bethe-Bloch formula using Ziegler’s semi-empirical formula [1]. 

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