Serm Immuno Fixation Electrophoresis as a Diagnostic Method for Monoclonal Gammopathies in Patients with Multiple Myeloma

Araz Muhammad Yousif, Nashwan Sleman Ablhad, Parween Abdulsamad Ismail

Abstract


B cells clonal expansion (producing abnormal amounts of immunoglobulins) reflect conditions causes a group of disorders called monoclonal gammopathies. They may be appearing as a range of diseases that consist of multiple myelomas (MM). The aim of this research is to use quantify and identify monoclonal gammopathy by serum immunofixation electrophoresis (SIFE) beside the serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) assay as a tumor marker in the diagnosis of suspected multiple myeloma cases. Serum samples were collected from 94 patients with MM, and 30 persons as control, SPEP and SIFE were used for both groups. M band determined and evaluated of M protein by the Hellabio instruments. The results of this study showed significant elevation (p<0.001) in the group of patients with MM compared to control as follows: 49 (52.13%) for IgG kappa, 23 (24.46%) for IgG lambda, 10 (10.63%) for IgA kappa, 4 (4.25%) for IgA lambda, 6 (6.38%) for IgM kappa, and 2 (2.12%) for IgG monoclonal gammopathy. SPEP ought to be proposed as the original test for the establishing of doubted cases of multiple myeloma. IFE is the gold mark now and ought to be performed to certify the existence of an M-protein and to diagnostic its light chain and heavy chain isotype, which also leads to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis in suspected multiple myeloma cases by using SIFE beside the SPEP assay and utilized for detection and quantification of monoclonal gammopathy.

Keywords


Multiple myeloma, M component, monoclonal gammopathy, serum immunofixation electrophoresis,

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.23851/mjs.v29i4.461

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